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COVID-19 Vaccine Ethics Research (COVER) in Nigeria

The COVID-19 Vaccine Ethics Research (COVER) project in Nigeria aimed to generate evidence on COVID-19 vaccine misinformation, conspiracies, and acceptance to inform targeted evidence-based messaging and improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Nigeria. COVER was a mixed-methods research study conducted in six Nigerian states (Ebonyi, Cross-Rivers, FCT, Gombe, Kano and Lagos), one each for the six geo-political zones.


The specific objectives were to: 

    1. Identify the source of information and trust in the source of information. 
    2. Understand the nature and drivers of circulating information and misinformation around COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines in Nigeria, as well as reasons why people believe or reject the theories. 
    3. Characterize the geographical and demographic variance in conspiracy theories about COVID-19 and its vaccines within Nigeria. 
    4. Understand the people’s perceptions and concerns about COVID-19 vaccines.
    5. Describe attitudes towards vaccination generally and COVID-19 vaccines specifically in Nigeria. 
    6. Understand how belief or sympathy for conspiracy theories may affect the intention to accept a COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines. 
    7. Identify the messaging and framing that could overcome conspiracy beliefs and theories about vaccination. 
    8. Understand the relationship between the moral foundation of decision-making on vaccine acceptance and belief in COVID-19 or COVID-19 conspiracy theories.


    1. Conspiracy theories and misinformation about COVID-19 in Nigeria: Implications for vaccine demand generation communications (




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